The black hole is a cosmic body, it generated strong gravitational forces, not even light can escape from a black hole. It is even 20 million times more massive than the Sun. For the first time, scientists witnessed the formation and expansion of a fast-moving jet material trying to escape the powerful gravitational force of the supermassive black hole, when it was tearing through a star, ripping it apart. A team of international scientists track this event with the help of radio and infrared telescope which also includes the National Science Foundation’s Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), in a pair of colliding galaxies which are known as Arp 299, they are nearly 150 million light- years from Earth.
Black hole ripped star which is more than twice the sun mass, a chain of these events revealed many important details of the vicious encounter. After his research, no proof is needed for the supermassive black hole power.
Only a small number of these star death, known as tidal disruption events, or TDEs, have been found. With the US National Science Foundation’s Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA. Scientists suggested that intense X-rays and visible light are emitted from the material pulled from the star-forming a rotating disk around the black hole. It also launches jets of material at the speed light outward from the poles of the disk.
A total of 36 scientists from 26 different institutions took part in this research project.
Scientists Miguel Perez-Torres of the Astrophysical Institute of Granada, Space and Seppo Mattila in the University of Turku in Finland led a team of 36 researchers in figuring out the whole event. Many Astronomers around the world have determined this is the first time that scientists have been able to track the image and formation of a material pulled out of a gigantic black hole.
“Never before have we been able to directly observe the formation and evolution of a jet from one of these events,” said Miguel Perez-Torres.
The team used the National Science Foundation’s Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and its 25-meter antenna in order to get more information of the jet material. The first indication about this activity came on January 30, 2005, when astronomers use the William Herschel Telescope in the Canary Islands, it discovers a bright burst of infrared emission coming out of the nucleus of the one of the colliding galaxies in Arp 299
They also studied it with a also other telescopes, including the National Science Foundation‘s (NSF) Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA), NASA’s Spitzer space telescope, the Nordic Optical Telescope on the Canary Islands, the European VLBI Network (EVN), and various other radio telescopes
The VLBA revealed a new, different source of radio emission from the same location on July 17, 2005.
Because of many supernova explosions scientists thought that they were looking at a supernova but when radio emissions from the site started appearing in 2011, they realized that this phenomenon is actually a jet.
. “As time passed, the new object stayed bright at infrared and radio wavelengths, but not in visible light and X-rays,” said Seppo Mattila, of the University of Turku in Finland.
“The most likely explanation is that thick interstellar gas and dust near the galaxy’s centre absorbed the X-rays and visible light, then re-radiated it as infrared,” Mattila added.
From the measured expansion, it is suggested that the material in the jet moves at an average of one-fourth the speed of light. Luckily, the radio waves are not absorbed in the core of the galaxy, but anyhow they find their way through it to reach the Earth
These observations used multiple radio-telescope antennas, which were separated by thousands of miles, in order to gain the resolving power or ability to see necessary details, required to notify the expansion of an object so distant.
After so many years of dedicated research, scientists found the evidence of a jet.
Many galaxies have gigantic black holes, which contains millions to billions of times of the mass of the sun. In a black hole, gravitational forces are so strong that even light cannot escape through it.
When these supermassive black holes trap materials from their surroundings, these materials form a rotating disk around the black hole and superfast jets of particles are launched in an outward direction. This same phenomenon is seen in quasars and radio galaxies.
“Much of the time, however, supermassive black holes are not actively devouring anything, so they are in a quiet state,” Perez-Torres explained.
“Tidal disruption events can provide us with a unique opportunity to advance our understanding of the formation and evolution of jets in the vicinities of these powerful objects,” he added.
“Because of the dust that absorbed any visible light, this particular tidal disruption event may be just the tip of the iceberg of what until now has been a hidden population,” Mattila said. “By looking for these events with infrared and radio telescopes, we may be able to discover many more, and learn from them.”
This study has provided researchers with a good opportunity to study something new that had not been studied before.
The researchers are hoping that this amazing discovery will help them to understand what goes in the distant universe while also gain knowledge about how the galaxies formed billions of years ago.